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The adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and MF59 induce monocyte and granulocyte chemoattractants and enhance monocyte differentiation toward dendritic cells.

Seubert, Anja and Monaci, Elisabetta and Pizza, Mariagrazia and O'Hagan, Derek T and Wack, Andreas (2008) The adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and MF59 induce monocyte and granulocyte chemoattractants and enhance monocyte differentiation toward dendritic cells. Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 180 (8). pp. 5402-5412. ISSN 0022-1767

Abstract

Aluminum hydroxide (alum) and the oil-in-water emulsion MF59 are widely used, safe and effective adjuvants, yet their mechanism of action is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of alum and MF59 on human immune cells and found that both induce secretion of chemokines, such as CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), CCL4 (MIP-1beta), and CXCL8 (IL-8), all involved in cell recruitment from blood into peripheral tissue. Alum appears to act mainly on macrophages and monocytes, whereas MF59 additionally targets granulocytes. Accordingly, monocytes and granulocytes migrate toward MF59-conditioned culture supernatants. In monocytes, both adjuvants lead to increased endocytosis, enhanced surface expression of MHC class II and CD86, and down-regulation of the monocyte marker CD14, which are all phenotypic changes consistent with a differentiation toward dendritic cells (DCs). When monocyte differentiation into DCs is induced by addition of cytokines, these adjuvants enhanced the acquisition of a mature DC phenotype and lead to an earlier and higher expression of MHC class II and CD86. In addition, MF59 induces further up-regulation of the maturation marker CD83 and the lymph node-homing receptor CCR7 on differentiating monocytes. Alum induces a similar but not identical pattern that clearly differs from the response to LPS. This model suggests a common adjuvant mechanism that is distinct from that mediated by danger signals. We conclude that during vaccination, adjuvants such as MF59 may increase recruitment of immune cells into the injection site, accelerate and enhance monocyte differentiation into DCs, augment Ag uptake, and facilitate migration of DCs into tissue-draining lymph nodes to prime adaptive immune responses.

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Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2009 13:53
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2009 13:53
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/816

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