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Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of formestane in breast cancer patients.

Lønning, P E, Geisler, J, Johannessen, D C, Gschwind, H P, Waldmeier, Felix, Schneider, W, Galli, Bruno, Winkler, T, Blum, Wolfgang, Kriemler, H P, Miller, Wendy and Faigle, J W (2001) Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of formestane in breast cancer patients. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 77 (1). pp. 39-47. ISSN 0960-0760


Formestane (Lentaron(R), 4-hydroxyandrostenedione) is a steroidal aromatase inhibitor used for treatment of advanced breast cancer. Clinically, it is administered as a depot form once fortnightly by intramuscular (i.m.) injection. To investigate the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and metabolism of the drug, seven patients received single 250 mg i.m. doses of commercial formestane on Days 0, 21, 35, 49 and 63 of this trial. On Day 63, three of the patients received an additional single intravenous (i.v.) pulse dose of 1 mg of 14C-labelled formestane. The plasma kinetics after i.m. dosing confirmed a sustained release of formestane from the site of injection. Within 24-48 h of the first dose, the circulating drug reached a C(max) of 48.0+/-20.9 nmol/l (mean+/-S.D.; N=7). At the end of the dosing interval, after 14 days, the plasma concentration was still at 2.3+/-1.8 nmol/l. The kinetic variables did not significantly change during prolonged treatment. Intramuscular doses appear to be fully bioavailable. Following i.v. injection of 14C-formestane, the unchanged drug disappeared rapidly from plasma, the terminal elimination half-life being 18+/-2 min (N=3). Plasma clearance, CL was 4.2+/-1.3 l/(h kg) and the terminal distribution volume V(z) was 1.8+/-0.5 l/kg. The drug is mainly eliminated by metabolism, renal excretion of metabolites accounting for 95% of dose. The excretory balance of 14C-compounds in urine and faeces totals up to 98.9+/-0.8% of the i.v. dose after 168 h. The 14C-compounds in plasma and urine were separated by HPLC, and three major metabolites were submitted to structural analysis by MS, NMR and UV spectroscopy. One of the metabolites is the direct 4-O-glucuronide of formestane. The other two represent 3-O-sulfates of the exocons 3beta,4beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstane-17-one and 3alpha,4beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstane-17-one, their ratio being 7:3. These exocons are formed by stereoselective 3-keto reduction, accompanied by reduction of the 4,5-enol function. The exocons do not inhibit human placental aromatase activity in vitro.

Item Type: Article
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Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2012 00:45
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2013 00:45


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