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Pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of deferasirox and its iron complex in rats.

Bruin, Gerardus and Faller, Thomas and Wiegand, Hansjoerg and Schweitzer, Alain and Nick, Hanspeter and Schneider, Josef and Boernsen, K. Olaf and Waldmeier, Felix (2008) Pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of deferasirox and its iron complex in rats. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals, 36 (12). pp. 2523-2538. ISSN 1521-009X

Abstract

Deferasirox (Exjade, ICL670, CGP72670) is an iron-chelating drug for p.o. treatment of transfusional iron overload in patients with beta-thalassemia or sickle cell disease. The pharmacokinetics and disposition of deferasirox were investigated in rats. The animals received single intravenous (10 mg/kg) or p.o. (10 or 100 mg/kg) doses of 14C-radiolabeled deferasirox. Biological samples were analyzed for radioactivity (liquid scintillation counting, quantitative whole-body autoradioluminography), for deferasirox and its iron complex [high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV], and for metabolites (HPLC with radiodetection, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR, and two-dimensional NMR techniques). At least 75% of p.o.-dosed deferasirox was absorbed. The p.o. bioavailability was 26% at the 10 mg/kg dose and showed an overproportional increase at the 100 mg/kg dose, probably because of saturation of elimination processes. Deferasirox-related radioactivity was distributed mainly to blood, excretory organs, and gastrointestinal tract. Enterohepatic recirculation of deferasirox was observed. No retention occurred in any tissue. The placental barrier was passed to a low extent. Approximately 3% of the dose was transferred into the breast milk. Excretion of deferasirox and metabolites was rapid and complete within 7 days. Key clearance processes were hepatic metabolism and biliary elimination via multidrug resistance protein 2. Deferasirox, iron complex, and metabolites were excreted largely via bile and feces (total > or = 90%). Metabolism included glucuronidation at the carboxylate group (acyl glucuronide M3) and at phenolic hydroxy groups, as well as, to a lower degree, cytochrome P450-catalyzed hydroxylations. Two hydroxylated metabolites (M1 and M2) were administered to rats and were shown not to contribute substantially to iron elimination in vivo.

Item Type: Article
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Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2012 00:45
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2013 00:45
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/6225

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