Browse views: by Year, by Function, by GLF, by Subfunction, by Conference, by Journal

From Lab Scale to Kilolab Scale using a Multimode Batch Microwave Reactor

Kappe, C. Oliver and Lehmann, Hansjoerg (2011) From Lab Scale to Kilolab Scale using a Multimode Batch Microwave Reactor. Organic Process Research and Development.

Official URL:


An evaluation of a new bench-top microwave batch reactor that uses a single 1 L reaction vessel is presented. Several microwave-assisted organic reactions have been scaled-up, including Newman Kwart and Diels-Alder reactions, Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings, heterocycle synthesis, aromatic substitution and a Knoevenagel condensation. A range of different solvents (high and low microwave absorbing), varying reaction times (4 s up to 2 h) and temperatures (120 °C to 250 °C) have been explored in these investigations. For all studied transformations it was possible to perform a direct scale-up (up to 720 mL applied volume) without changing the previously optimized reaction conditions achieved in a laboratory scale single-mode microwave instrument (2-20 mL processing volume), obtaining similar isolated product yields. A scalability up to 360 fold, when moving from 3 mmol up to 1.08 mol, was demonstrated and isolated product yields up to 300 g (2.5 mol scale) in a single run could be accomplished, providing the potential for a kilogram output per day by performing multiple sequential runs.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The paper is a joint publication written by authors from the University of Graz (Prof. Kappe, main author and D. Dallinger), Novartis (H. Lehmann), Astra Zeneca (J.D. Moseley) and Anton-Paar (A. Stadler)
Keywords: Microwave, Scale-up, Kilolab
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2015 13:15
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2015 13:15


Email Alerts

Register with OAK to receive email alerts for saved searches.