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Unambiguous identification of α-Gal epitopes in intact monoclonal antibodies by NMR spectroscopy.

Hinterholzer, Arthur, Moises, Jennifer, Regl, Christof, Schwap, Sebastian, Huber, Christian G. and Schubert, Mario (2022) Unambiguous identification of α-Gal epitopes in intact monoclonal antibodies by NMR spectroscopy. mAbs, 14 (1). p. 2132977. ISSN 1942-0870


The α-Gal epitope consisting of the terminal trisaccharide Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc exposed on cell or protein surfaces can cause severe immune reactions, such as hypersensitivity reactions, in humans. This epitope is also called the xenotransplantation epitope because it is one of the main reasons for the rejection of non-human organ transplants by the human innate immune response. Recombinant therapeutic proteins expressed in murine cell lines may contain α-Gal epitopes, and therefore their absence or presence needs to be tightly monitored to minimize any undesired adverse effects. The analytical identification of α-Gal epitopes in glycoproteins using the common standard techniques based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry is challenging, mainly due to the isobaricity of hexose stereoisomers. Here, we present a straightforward NMR approach to detect the presence of α-Gal in biotherapeutics based on a quick screen with sensitive 1H-1H TOCSY spectra followed by a confirmation using 1H-13C HSQC spectra.Abbreviations: α-Gal: α1,3-linked galactose; AGC: automatic gain control; CHO: Chinese hamster ovary; CE: capillary electrophoreses coupled to mass spectrometry; COSY: correlation spectroscopy; DSS: 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate; DTT: dithiothreitol; GlcNAc: N-acetyl glusomamine; HCD: higher-energy collisional dissociation; HMBC: heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; HSQC: heteronuclear single-quantum corre; LacNAc: N-acetyl lactosamine; mAb: monoclonal antibody; MS: mass spectrometry; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; NOESY: 2D) nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy; PEG: polyethylenglycol; pH*: observed pH meter reading without correction for isotope effects; PTM: post-translational modification; TCEP: tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride; TOCSY: total correlation spectroscopy; xCGE-LIF: multiplex capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Monoclonal Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological CHO Cells Cricetinae Cricetulus Dithiothreitol Epitopes Galactose Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Mice Trisaccharides
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2022 00:46
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2022 00:46


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