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Rituximab-specific DNA aptamers are able to selectively recognize heat-treated antibodies

Kohlberger, Michael and Wildner, Sabrina and Regl, Christof and Huber, Christian G. and Gadermaier, Gabriele (2020) Rituximab-specific DNA aptamers are able to selectively recognize heat-treated antibodies. PLoS ONE, 15 (11 Nov). ISSN 19326203

Abstract

The monoclonal anti-CD20 IgG1 antibody rituximab is used as a first-line treatment for B cell lymphoma. Like all therapeutic antibodies, it is a complex protein for which both safety and efficacy heavily depend on the integrity of its three-dimensional structure. Aptamers, short oligonucleotides with a distinct fold, can be used to detect minor modifications or structural variations of a molecule or protein. To detect antibody molecules in a fold state occurring prior to protein precipitation, we generated DNA aptamers that were selected for extensively heat-treated rituximab. Using the magnetic bead-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), we obtained six DNA aptamer sequences (40-mers) specific for 80°C heat-treated rituximab. In silico fold prediction and circular dichroism analysis revealed a G-quadruplex structure for one aptamer, while all others exhibited a B-DNA helix. Binding affinities ranging from 8.8-86.7 nM were determined by an enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA). Aptamers additionally detected structural changes in rituximab treated for 5 min at 70°C, although with lower binding activity. Notably, none of the aptamers recognized rituximab in its native state nor did they detect the antibody after it was exposed to lower temperatures or different physical stressors. Aptamers also reacted with the therapeutic antibody adalimumab incubated at 80°C suggesting similar aptamer binding motifs located on extensively heat-treated IgG1 antibodies. Within this work, we obtained the first aptamer panel, which is specific for an antibody fold state specifically present prior to protein aggregation. This study demonstrates the potential of aptamer selection for specific stress-based protein variants, which has potential impact for quality control of biopharmaceuticals.

Item Type: Article
Date Deposited: 25 May 2021 00:45
Last Modified: 25 May 2021 00:45
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/43244

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