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Two distinct immunopathological profiles in autopsy lungs of COVID-19

Nienhold, Ronny and Ciani, Yari and Koelzer, Viktor H. and Tzankov, Alexandar and Haslbauer, Jasmin D. and Menter, Thomas and Schwab, Nathalie and Henkel, Maurice and Frank, Angela and Zsikla, Veronika and Willi, Niels and Kempf, Werner and Hoyler, Thomas and Barbareschi, Mattia and Moch, Holger and Tolnay, Markus and Cathomas, Gieri and Demichelis, Francesca and Junt, Tobias and Mertz, Kirsten (2020) Two distinct immunopathological profiles in autopsy lungs of COVID-19. Nature Communications, 11 (1). pp. 1-13. ISSN 20411723

Abstract

Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has grown to a worldwide pandemic with substantial mortality. Immune mediated damage has been proposed as a pathogenic factor, but immune responses in lungs of COVID-19 patients remain poorly characterized. Here we show transcriptomic, histologic and cellular profiles of post mortem COVID-19 (n = 34 tissues from 16 patients) and normal lung tissues (n = 9 tissues from 6 patients). Two distinct immunopathological reaction patterns of lethal COVID-19 are identified. One pattern shows high local expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGhigh) and cytokines, high viral loads and limited pulmonary damage, the other pattern shows severely damaged lungs, low ISGs (ISGlow), low viral loads and abundant infiltrating activated CD8+ T cells and macrophages. ISGhigh patients die significantly earlier after hospitalization than ISGlow patients. Our study may point to distinct stages of progression of COVID-19 lung disease and highlights the need for peripheral blood biomarkers that inform about patient lung status and guide treatment.

Item Type: Article
Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2021 00:45
Last Modified: 20 Jan 2021 00:45
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/42824

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