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Absorption and Disposition of the Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulator Fingolimod (FTY720) in Healthy Volunteers: A Case of Xenobiotic Biotransformation Following Endogenous Metabolic Pathways.

Zollinger, Markus and Gschwind, Hans-Peter and Jin, Yi and Sayer, Claudia and Zecri, Frederic and Hartmann, Stefan (2010) Absorption and Disposition of the Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulator Fingolimod (FTY720) in Healthy Volunteers: A Case of Xenobiotic Biotransformation Following Endogenous Metabolic Pathways. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. ISSN 1521-009X

Abstract

Fingolimod, a new drug for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, acts through its phosphate metabolite which modulates sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. This represents a novel mechanism of action. In the present work, the absorption and disposition of (14)C-labeled fingolimod was investigated in healthy male volunteers after a single oral dose of 4.5 mg. Total radioactivity was determined in blood, urine, and feces. Fingolimod was quantified in blood. Metabolite profiles were determined in blood and excreta, and metabolite structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry, wet-chemical methods, and comparison with reference compounds. Fingolimod was absorbed slowly but almost completely. The biotransformation of fingolimod involved three main pathways: (i) reversible phosphorylation to fingolimod phosphate ((S)-enantiomer, active principle), (ii) ω-hydroxylation at the octyl chain, catalyzed predominantly by CYP4F enzymes, followed by further oxidation to a carboxylic acid and subsequent β-oxidation, and (iii) formation of ceramide analogs by conjugation with endogenous fatty acids. This metabolism is quite unusual as it follows metabolic pathways of structurally related endogenous compounds rather than biotransformations typical for xenobiotics. The elimination of fingolimod was slow and occurred predominantly by oxidative metabolism while fingolimod phosphate was eliminated mainly by dephosphorylation back to fingolimod. Drug-related material was excreted mostly in the urine in the form of oxidation products.

Item Type: Article
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Additional Information: author cannot archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing)
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Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2015 13:15
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2015 13:15
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/3992

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