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Duplicated Enhancer Region Increases Expression of CTSB and Segregates with Keratolytic Winter Erythema in South African and Norwegian Families.

Ngcungcu, Thandiswa and Oti, Martin and Sitek, Jan C and Haukanes, Bjørn I and Linghu, Bolan and Bruccoleri, Robert and Stokowy, Tomasz and Oakeley, Edward J and Yang, Fan and Zhu, Jiang and Sultan, Marc and Schalkwijk, Joost and van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J and von der Lippe, Charlotte and Brunner, Han G and Ersland, Kari M and Grayson, Wayne and Buechmann-Moller, Stine and Sundnes, Olav and Nirmala, Nanguneri and Morgan, Thomas M and van Bokhoven, Hans and Steen, Vidar M and Hull, Peter R and Szustakowski, Joseph and Staedtler, Frank and Zhou, Huiqing and Fiskerstrand, Torunn and Ramsay, Michele (2017) Duplicated Enhancer Region Increases Expression of CTSB and Segregates with Keratolytic Winter Erythema in South African and Norwegian Families. American journal of human genetics, 100 (5). pp. 737-750. ISSN 1537-6605

Abstract

Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE) is a rare autosomal-dominant skin disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of palmoplantar erythema and epidermal peeling. KWE was previously mapped to 8p23.1-p22 (KWE critical region) in South African families. Using targeted resequencing of the KWE critical region in five South African families and SNP array and whole-genome sequencing in two Norwegian families, we identified two overlapping tandem duplications of 7.67 kb (South Africans) and 15.93 kb (Norwegians). The duplications segregated with the disease and were located upstream of CTSB, a gene encoding cathepsin B, a cysteine protease involved in keratinocyte homeostasis. Included in the 2.62 kb overlapping region of these duplications is an enhancer element that is active in epidermal keratinocytes. The activity of this enhancer correlated with CTSB expression in normal differentiating keratinocytes and other cell lines, but not with FDFT1 or NEIL2 expression. Gene expression (qPCR) analysis and immunohistochemistry of the palmar epidermis demonstrated significantly increased expression of CTSB, as well as stronger staining of cathepsin B in the stratum granulosum of affected individuals than in that of control individuals. Analysis of higher-order chromatin structure data and RNA polymerase II ChIA-PET data from MCF-7 cells did not suggest remote effects of the enhancer. In conclusion, KWE in South African and Norwegian families is caused by tandem duplications in a non-coding genomic region containing an active enhancer element for CTSB, resulting in upregulation of this gene in affected individuals.

Item Type: Article
Date Deposited: 01 Jun 2017 00:45
Last Modified: 01 Jun 2017 00:45
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/33147

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