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Brain region-specific enhancement of remyelination and prevention of demyelination by the CSF1R kinase inhibitor BLZ945

Beckmann, Nicolau and Giorgetti, Elisa and Neuhaus, Anna and Zurbruegg, Stefan and Accart Gris, Nathalie and Smith, Paul and Perdoux, Julien and Perrot, Ludovic and Nash, Mark and Desrayaud, Sandrine and Wipfli, Peter and Frieauff, Wilfried and Shimshek, Derya (2018) Brain region-specific enhancement of remyelination and prevention of demyelination by the CSF1R kinase inhibitor BLZ945. Acta neuropathologica communications.. ISSN 2051-5960

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). While multiple effective immunomodulatory therapies for MS exist today, they lack the scope of promoting CNS repair, in particular remyelination. Microglia play a pivotal role in regulating myelination processes, and the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) pathway is a key regulator for microglia differentiation and survival. Here, we investigated the effects of the CSF-1 receptor kinase inhibitor, BLZ945, on central myelination processes in the 5-week murine cuprizone model by non- invasive and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. Therapeutic 2-week BLZ945 treatment caused a brain region-specific enhancement of remyelination in the striatum/cortex, which was absent in the corpus callosum/ external capsule. This beneficial effect correlated positively with microglia reduction, increased oligodendrocytes and astrogliosis. Prophylactic BLZ945 treatment prevented excessive demyelinationinthe corpus callosum by reducing microglia and increasing oligondendrocytes. In the external capsule oligodendrocytes were depleted but not microglia and a buildup of myelin debris and axonal damage was observed. A similar microglial dysfunction in the external capsule with an increase of myelin debris was obvious in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) knock-out mice treated with cuprizone. Finally, therapeutic BLZ945 treatment did not change the disease course in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice, a peripherally driven neuroinflammation model. Taken together, our data suggest that a short-term therapeutic inhibition of the CSF-1 receptor pathway by BLZ945 in the murine cuprizone model enhances central remyelination by modulating neuroinflammation. Thus, microglia-modulating therapies could be considered clinically for promoting myelination in combination with standard-of-care treatments in MS patients.

Item Type: Article
Date Deposited: 02 Mar 2018 00:45
Last Modified: 02 Mar 2018 00:45
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/31922

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