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Acute and chronic effects of the incretin enhancer vildagliptin in insulin-resistant rats.

Burkey, Bryan and Li, X and Bolognese, Lori and Balkan, Bork and Mone, Manisha and Russell, Mary and Hughes, Thomas and Wang, Pei-Ran (2005) Acute and chronic effects of the incretin enhancer vildagliptin in insulin-resistant rats. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 315 (2). pp. 688-695. ISSN 0022-3565

Abstract

The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inactivates the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Because GLP-1 has therapeutic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes, but its potential is limited by a short half-life, DPP-4 inhibition is a promising approach to diabetes treatment. This study examined acute (single dose) and chronic (once-a-day dosing for 21 days) effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin (0.03-10 mg/kg) on plasma DPP-4 activity, intact GLP-1, glucose, and insulin after an oral glucose load in insulin-resistant Zucker fatty rats and acute effects in mildly insulin-resistant high-fat-fed normal rats. A single oral dose of vildagliptin in Zucker rats produced a rapid and dose-related inhibition of DPP-4: the minimum effective dose (MED) was 0.3 mg/kg. Glucose-induced increases of intact GLP-1 were greatly but similarly enhanced by vildagliptin at doses > or =0.3 mg/kg. Postload glucose excursions decreased, and the insulinogenic index (Deltainsulin/Deltaglucose at 10 min) increased, with an MED of 0.3 mg/kg and a maximally effective dose of 3 mg/kg. The effects of vildagliptin after chronic treatment were nearly identical to those of acute administration, and vildagliptin had no effect on body weight. In fat-fed normal rats, vildagliptin (3 mg/kg) also decreased postload glucose excursions and increased the insulinogenic index, but these effects were smaller than those in Zucker rats. Thus, vildagliptin is an orally effective incretin enhancer with antihyperglycemic activity in insulin-resistant rats and exhibits no tachyphylaxis. GLP-1-mediated augmentation of glucose-induced insulin release seems to make the major contribution to the antidiabetic properties of vildagliptin.

Item Type: Article
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Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2009 14:07
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2009 14:07
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/31

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