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G-Protein-coupled Bile Acid Receptor 1 (GPBAR1, TGR5) agonists reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stabilize the alternative macrophage phenotype

Hoegenauer, Klemens and Arista, Luca and Schmiedeberg, Niko and Werner, Gudrun and Jaksche, Herbert and Bouhelal, Rochdi and Nguyen, Deborah G. and Bhat, B. Ganesh and Raad, Layla and Rauld, Celine and Carballido, Jose (2014) G-Protein-coupled Bile Acid Receptor 1 (GPBAR1, TGR5) agonists reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stabilize the alternative macrophage phenotype. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 57 (24). pp. 10343-10354.

Abstract

GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which triggers intracellular signals upon ligation by various bile acids. The receptor has been studied mainly for its function in energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis, and there is little information on the role of GPBAR1 in the context of inflammation. After a high-throughput screening campaign, we identified isonicotinamides exemplified by compound 3 as non-steroidal GPBAR1 agonists. We optimized this series to potent derivatives that are active on both human and murine GPBAR1. These agonists inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-12, but not the anti-inflammatory IL-10 in primary human monocytes. These effects translate in vivo, as compound 15 inhibits LPS induced TNF-alpha and IL-12 release in mice. The response was GPBAR1 dependent, as demonstrated using knockout mice. Furthermore, agonism of GPBAR1 stabilized the phenotype of the alternative, non-inflammatory, M2-like type cells during differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. Overall, our results illustrate an important regulatory role for GPBAR1 agonists as controllers of inflammation.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: GPBAR1, TGR5, GPCR, bile acids, inflammation, lead optimization, CyTOF, mass cytometry
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2015 13:12
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2015 13:12
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/23871

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