Browse views: by Year, by Function, by GLF, by Subfunction, by Conference, by Journal

Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus Tegument Protein ORF75 Is Essential for Viral Lytic Replication and Plays a Critical Role in the Antagonization of ND10Instituted Intrinsic Immunity - art. no. e1003863

Full, F and Jungnickl, D and Reuter, N and Bogner, E and Brulois, K and Scholz, B and Stuerzl, M and Myoung, J and Jung, JU and Stamminger, T and Ensser, A (2014) Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus Tegument Protein ORF75 Is Essential for Viral Lytic Replication and Plays a Critical Role in the Antagonization of ND10Instituted Intrinsic Immunity - art. no. e1003863. PLOS PATHOGENS. pp. 3863-3.

Abstract

Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components are restriction factors that inhibit herpesviral replication. Effector proteins of different herpesviruses can antagonize this restriction by a variety of strategies, including degradation or relocalization of ND10 proteins. We investigated the interplay of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) infection and cellular defense by nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components. Knock-down experiments in primary human cells show that KSHV-infection is restricted by the ND10 components PML and Sp100, but not by ATRX. After KSHV infection, ATRX is efficiently depleted and Daxx is dispersed from ND10, indicating that these two ND10 components can be antagonized by KSHV. We then identified the ORF75 tegument protein of KSHV as the viral factor that induces the disappearance of ATRX and relocalization of Daxx. ORF75 belongs to a viral protein family (viral FGARATs) that has homologous proteins in all gamma-herpesviruses. Isolated expression of ORF75 in primary cells induces a relocalization of PML and dispersal of Sp100, indicating that this viral effector protein is able to influence multiple ND10 components. Moreover, by constructing a KSHV mutant harboring a stop codon at the beginning of ORF75, we could demonstrate that ORF75 is absolutely essential for viral replication and the initiation of viral immediate-early gene expression. Using recombinant viruses either carrying Flag- or YFP-tagged variants of ORF75, we could further corroborate the role of ORF75 in the antagonization of ND10-mediated intrinsic immunity, and show that it is independent of the PML antagonist vIRF3. Members of the viral FGARAT family target different ND10 components, suggesting that the ND10 targets of viral FGARAT proteins have diversified during evolution. We assume that overcoming ND10 intrinsic defense constitutes a critical event in the replication of all herpesviruses; on the other hand, restriction of herpesviral replication by ND10 components may also promote latency as the default outcome of infection.Author Summary Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes a lifelong persistent infection in humans and is associated with tumors and lymphoproliferative disease, particularly upon immunosuppression. The virus has to overcome cellular intrinsic immunity in order to initiate viral protein expression and genome replication in primary infection. We demonstrated that KSHV is restricted by a cellular intrinsic immunity complex called nuclear domain 10 (ND10) and identified a critical role of the KSHV ORF75 protein, which is part of the viral particle, in this process. We found that ORF75 is essential for viral replication and that ORF75 leads to disappearance of the ND10 protein ATRX. Furthermore, it induces the relocalization of several other ND10 components. Noteworthy, all herpesviruses studied so far have evolved mechanisms for ND10 counteraction, indicating the importance of this step for herpesviral replication. The individual mechanisms, however, including the extent of ND10-antagonization, are of considerable variation between different herpesviruses. We speculate that, in contrast to efficient lytic replication of alphaherpesviruses, less effective ND10 counteraction may represent a doorway for gammaherpesviruses to latent infection

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: NIBR author: Myoung, j institute: NIBR contributor address: Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Univ Klinikum Erlangen, Inst Clin & Mol Virol, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany armin.ensser@viro.med.uni-erlangen.de; Charite, Inst Med Virol, D-13353 Berlin, Germany ; Univ So Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Mol Microbiol & Immunol, Los Angeles, CA 90033 USA ; Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Univ Klinikum Erlangen, Div Mol & Expt Surg, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany ; Novartis Inst Biomed Res, Emeryville, CA USA ; Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Univ Klinikum Erlangen, Inst Clin & Mol Virol, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany; Ensser, A; Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Univ Klinikum Erlangen, Inst Clin & Mol Virol, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2015 13:12
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2015 13:12
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/22629

Search

Email Alerts

Register with OAK to receive email alerts for saved searches.