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Modulation of endotoxicity of Shigella Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) by genetic lipid A modifications: relative activation of TLR4 and TLR2 pathways in different mutants

Rossi, Omar and Pesce, Isabella and Giannelli, Carlo and Aprea, Susanna and Caboni, Mariaelena and Citiulo, Francesco and Valentini, Sara and Ferlenghi, Ilaria and Maclennan, Calman Alexander and D'Oro, Ugo and Saul, Allan James and Gerke, Christiane E A (2014) Modulation of endotoxicity of Shigella Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) by genetic lipid A modifications: relative activation of TLR4 and TLR2 pathways in different mutants. Journal of Biological Chemistry.

Abstract

Outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria are attractive vaccine candidates as they present surface antigens in their natural environment and orientation. We previously developed a high yield production process for genetically derived particles, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), from Shigella. As GMMA are derived from the outer membrane and contain immune-stimulatory components, especially lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we examined ways of reducing their reactogenicity by modifying lipid A, the endotoxic part of LPS, through deletion of late acyltransferase genes msbB or htrB in GMMA-producing S. sonnei and S. flexneri strains. GMMA with resulting penta-acylated lipid A from the msbB mutants showed a 600-fold reduction, GMMA from the S. sonnei ΔhtrB mutant a 60,000-fold reduced ability compared to GMMA with wild-type lipid A to stimulated human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in a reporter cell line. In contrast, in the S. flexneri ΔhtrB mutant, a compensatory palmitoleoylation occurs resulting in hexa-acylated lipid A with approximately 10-fold higher activity than the penta-acylated lipid A. In human PBMC, GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A showed a marked reduction in induction of inflammatory cytokines (800-fold for S. sonnei ΔhtrB, 300-fold for the msbB mutants) compared to a 50-fold reduction observed for GMMA with palmitoleoylated lipid A from the S. flexneri ΔhtrB strain. We demonstrated that the residual activity of GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A is largely due to non-lipid A related TLR2 activation whereas GMMA with palmitoleoylated hexa-acylated lipid A predominantly activate TLR4. These results identify the relative activation of TLR4 and TLR2 pathways by GMMA.

Item Type: Article
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2015 13:13
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2015 13:13
URI: https://oak.novartis.com/id/eprint/21177

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